sábado, 3 de septiembre de 2011

Caetano Veloso

Caetano Emanuel Viana Teles Veloso (Portuguese pronunciation: [kaeˈtɐ̃nu emanuˈɛw viˈɐ̃nɐ ˈtɛlis veˈlozu]; born August 7, 1942), better known as Caetano Veloso, is a Brazilian composer, singer, guitarist, writer, and political activist. Veloso first became known for his participation in the Brazilian musical movement Tropicalismo which encompassed theatre, poetry and music in the 1960s, at the beginning of the Brazilian military dictatorship. He has remained a constant creative influence and best-selling performing artist and composer ever since.
Veloso was born in the city of Santo Amaro da Purificação, in Bahia, a state in the northeastern area of Brazil, but moved to Salvador, the state capital, as a college student in the mid-1960s. Soon after the move, Veloso won a music contest and was signed to his first label. He became one of the founders of Tropicalismo with a group of several other musicians and artists—including his sister Maria Bethânia—in the same period. However the Brazilian government at the time viewed Veloso's music and political action as threatening, and he was arrested, along with fellow musician Gilberto Gil, in 1969. The two eventually were exiled from Brazil, and went to London, where they lived for two years. After he moved back to his home country, in 1972, Veloso once again began recording and performing, becoming popular outside of Brazil in the 1980s and 1990s.
Veloso was born in Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia, the fifth of seven children of José Teles Veloso (1901–1983) and Claudionor Viana Teles Veloso (1907-). His childhood was influenced greatly by artistic endeavors: he was interested in both literature and filmmaking as a child, but focused mainly on music. The musical style of bossa nova and João Gilberto, one of its most prominent exponents, were major influences on Veloso's music as he grew up.

Veloso first heard Gilberto at 17 years old, and describes the musician as his "supreme master. He recognizes Gilberto's contribution to Brazilian music as new—"illuminating" the tradition of Brazilian music and paving the way for future innovation. Veloso moved to the Bahian port city of Salvador as a teenager, the city in which Gilberto lived and a center of Afro-Brazilian culture and music.
1n 1965 he moved again to Rio de Janeiro, with his sister Maria Bethânia, also a musician. Shortly after the move, Veloso won a lyrics contest for his composition "Um Dia" and was signed to Philips Records. Beginning in 1967, with collaborators including Bethânia, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Tom Zé, and Os Mutantes, Veloso developed Tropicalismo, which fused Brazilian pop with rock and roll and avant-garde music. Veloso describes the movement as a wish to be different—not "defensive" like the right-wing Brazilian military government, which vehemently opposed the movement.
Leftist college students also condemned Tropicalismo because they believed it commercialized Brazilian traditional music by incorporating musical influence from other cultures, specifically the United States. Even though Tropicalismo was controversial among traditional critics, it introduced to Música Popular Brasileira new elements for making music with an eclectic style.
Veloso studied philosophy at the Universidade Federal da Bahia, which influenced both his artistic expression and viewpoint on life. Two of his favorite philosophers were Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger.[5] Veloso's leftist political stance earned him the enmity of Brazil's military dictatorship which ruled until 1985; his songs were frequently censored and some banned. Veloso and Gil spent several months in prison in 1969 and then were sent into exile.

He said that "they didn't imprison us for any song or any particular thing that we said," ascribing the government's reaction to its unfamiliarity with the cultural phenomenon of Tropicália—they seemed to say "We might as well put them in prison. The federal police detained the two and flew them to an unknown destination. Finally, Veloso and Gil lived out their exile in London, England. When Caetano was asked about his experience there he says, "London felt dark, and I felt far away from myself." Nevertheless, the two improved their music there and were asked to make a musical production with the producer Ralph Mace.
Veloso's work upon his return in 1972 was often characterized by frequent merging not only of international styles but of Brazilian folkloric styles and rhythms as well. His popularity grew outside Brazil in the 1980s, especially in Israel, Greece, Portugal, France, and Africa. His records released in the United States, such as O Estrangeiro, helped gain him a larger audience.
To celebrate 25 years of Tropicalismo, Veloso and Gilberto Gil released a CD called Tropicalia 2 in 1993. One song, "Haiti", attracted people's attention during the time, especially because it included powerful statements about sociopolitical issues present in Haiti and also in Brazil. Issues addressed in the song included ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, and capital corruption in the AIDS pandemic. By 2004, he was one of the most respected and prolific international pop stars, with more than 50 recordings available including songs in film soundtracks of Michelangelo Antonioni's Eros, Pedro Almodóvar's Hable con ella, and Frida, for which he performed at the 75th Academy Awards but did not win. In 2002 Veloso published an account of his early years and the Tropicalismo movement, Tropical Truth: A Story of Music and Revolution in Brazil.
His first all-English CD was A Foreign Sound (2004), which covers Nirvana's "Come as You Are" and compositions from the Great American Songbook such as "The Carioca" (music by Vincent Youmans and lyrics by Edward Eliscu and Gus Kahn), "Always" (music and lyrics by Irving Berlin), "Manhattan" (music by Richard Rodgers and lyrics by Lorenz Hart), "Love for Sale" (music and lyrics by Cole Porter), and "Something Good" (music and lyrics by Richard Rodgers). Five of the six songs on his third eponymous album, released in 1971, were also in English.

Veloso has contributed songs to two AIDS benefit compilation albums produced by the Red Hot Organization: Red Hot + Rio (1996) and Onda Sonora: Red Hot + Lisbon (1998).
In 2011, he again contributed two songs to the Red Hot Organization's most recent compilation album, "Red Hot + Rio 2." The two tracks include Terra (Prefuse 73 '3 Mellotrons In A Quiet Room' Version) and Dreamworld: Marco de Canaveses, in collaboration with David Byrne.
His September 2006 album, Cê, was released by Nonesuch Records in the United States. It won two Latin Grammy Awards, one for best singer-songwriter and one for Best Portuguese Song, "Não Me Arrependo". With a total of five Latin Grammys, Veloso has received more than any other Brazilian performer.
Veloso has been called "one of the greatest songwriters of the century and "a pop musician/poet/filmmaker/political activist whose stature in the pantheon of international pop musicians is on a par with that of Bob Dylan, Bob Marley, and Lennon/McCartney".
Veloso has won five Latin Grammy Awards.
Veloso's first marriage in 1969 was to a dance student named Andréa Gadelha, known as Dedé, who was the sister of Gilberto Gil's ex-wife Sandra Gadelha. With Dedé, he had his first son Moreno, born in 1972. In 1982 Veloso started a relationship with Paula Lavigne. Veloso's marriage with Gadelha ended in 1983 and he married Lavigne in 1986 when she was 17. The couple had two sons: Zeca (born 1992) and Tom (born 1997). Veloso and Lavigne divorced in 2004.
Veloso's home, Bahia, has had a decisive role in his music. He praises Bahia for its importance in Brazil's colonial period—when the Portuguese first came—as well as for Bahia's contribution to Brazilian music. He has cited among his musical influences Amália Rodrigues, Cole Porter, the Rolling Stones 1969 tour, and above all, João Gilberto.
Veloso says that he is unable to make a comparison between his musical style in the 1960s, at the height of Tropicália, and his current work. He does note, however, that he has been able to accomplish music of a higher quality later in his career; that he is "better at everything.

Caetano Emanuel Vianna Telles Veloso (n. el 7 de agosto de 1942 en Santo Amaro de Purificação) es un conocido músico brasileño.
Veloso nació el 7 de agosto de 1942 en Santo Amaro de Purificação, una pequeña ciudad del estado de Bahía, (Brasil). La suya fue una numerosa familia amante de la música integrada por ocho hijos, dos de ellos adoptados. Caetano aprendió en su casa a tocar el piano y a los nueve años compuso su primera canción, un baião. Cuando llegó el momento de los estudios universitarios, junto a su hermana María Bethania, se trasladó a Salvador de Bahía, donde pasó su juventud y estudió arte en la universidad.
A fines de 1966 acompañó a su hermana María Bethania, quien había sido invitada a cantar en una obra musical en Río de Janeiro; obtuvo su primer éxito cuando su hermana grabó su primera composición.
Rápidamente ganó algunos premios y pudo grabar su primer álbum con Gal Costa: Domingo. En 1968, junto a Gilberto Gil, fue uno de los primeros emprendedores del tropicalismo, movimiento cultural cuyo objetivo era la reevaluación de la música tradicional brasileña. Grabó en 1968 su primer álbum solista llamado Caetano Veloso, y su música cruzó las fronteras con su controvertida É proibido proibir.
Le fueron otorgados varios premios en distintos festivales de televisión. Un año después, logró con su álbum Tropicalia que surgiera el movimiento musical conocido como tropicalismo, del que forman parte algunos músicos de Bahía como Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa o María Bethania.
En 1969 debido a la dictadura que asolaba Brasil, Veloso se vio obligado a exiliarse a Londres (Reino Unido), Madrid (España),Tel Aviv (Israel); tres años más tarde regresó a Brasil y grabó Araca azul, un disco experimental.
En 1976 formó un grupo con Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa y María Bethania, e hicieron una gira por Brasil con el nombre de "Doces bárbaros".
Bicho fue lanzado en 1977 influenciado por el contacto que tuviera con la cultura nigeriana, donde había estado algunos meses antes. Ese mismo año fue publicado Alegría, un libro que es una colección de artículos y poemas que abarca desde 1965 hasta 1976.
En 1981 se hizo con su primer éxito con Outras palavras, y a partir de entonces su fama se extendió a todos los rincones del mundo.

En el año 1986 graba en conjunto con el compositor, cantante y ahora director de cine Fito Páez el disco Corazón Clandestino, un maxi simple que supuso el primer contacto de Veloso con el rock argentino.
Ya en 1989 fue lanzado Estrangeiro. En 1991 fue lanzado un nuevo álbum llamado Circuladô. La letra que dio nombre al álbum fue un poema de Haroldo Campos, poeta brasileño. El diseño de la tapa de Circuladô ao vivo fue idea de Caetano y fue lanzada en 1992 como una pieza maestra. En 1993 fue lanzado Tropicalia 2 con Gilberto Gil. Fina Estampa aparece en 1995 y Noites do norte en 2001.En 2006 lanza un su álbum "Ce", con canciones inéditas de su autoría.
En 2003 colaboró con Nelly Furtado en su segundo disco Folklore en la canción Island of Wonder.

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